Reinoud Oudshoorn
(Netherland, b. 1953

雷諾・奧德霍恩 Reinoud Oudshoorn(荷蘭,b.1953) 荷蘭阿特利爾63學院藝術碩士(MFA, The Ateliers 63 Haarlem),阿爾特茲藝術學士(BFA, AKI School of Arts, Enschede),現居住創作於荷蘭阿姆斯特丹,曾執教於荷蘭皇家藝術學院。雷諾・奧德霍恩 Reinoud Oudshoorn以構築空間的極簡雕塑著稱,認為解決問題是一切創作根源。統一設在1.65M高的滅點(Vanishing Point),從此開啟每件作品的生命裏程,透過單色極簡材質的細膩敘述,點線面多點交錯滅點的獨特語言風格,實現其一貫理念:“我搭起一座始於實體作品、經由透視空間、通往精神世界的橋梁”。展覽經歷遍及歐美,曾於阿姆斯特丹市立博物館(Stedelijk Museum),佛多爾美術館 (Museum Fodor),蘇黎世設計博物館(Museum für Gestaltung)、第8屆愛沙尼亞三年展Tallinn Applied Art Triennal等展出。作品集 ‘A Selection of Works’ 獲評選為‘The Best Dutch Book Designs 2019’。作品獲阿姆斯特丹市立美術館(Stedelijk Musuem Amsterdam)、 荷蘭AkzoNobel Art Foundation、荷蘭銀行(ABN AMRO)、德國私人美術館(Sammlung Schroth)等永久收藏。

2021年於愛沙尼亞Kai Art Center第8屆Tallinn Applied Art Triennal三年展”Translucency”參展

作品集 ‘A Selection of Works’ 自278位設計書籍競逐中,獲專業評選為‘The Best Dutch Book Designs 2019’。33位獲獎書於荷蘭最重要當代美術館 Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam阿姆斯特丹市立博物館展出。

雷諾・奧德霍恩 Reinoud Oudshoorn成長於荷蘭鄉村,最近的鄰居相距1.5km以上,童年在偌大的田野與多霧的森林中遨遊,熱愛繪畫的他,培養出對霧中變幻風景細微觀察的興趣。進入學院後開啟不同藝術創作階段:

1.繪畫風格時期(distilled minimal fragments of interiors):學院時受到 ‘de Stijl’ 荷蘭風格派主義運動,傑出的極簡風格繪畫人稱“蒸餾極簡空間片段”(distilled minimal fragments of interiors),受邀阿姆斯特丹美術館(Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam )作品展出於蒙德裏安Mondrian 、馬勒維奇Malevich之間。

2.透視法雕塑轉換時期:自80年代起繪畫日益抽象簡化,不滿足於二維繪畫的表現型式,逐漸展開對三維空間立體創作的實驗。向往Paolo Uccello(1397-1475) 著迷於透視法中蘊藏著無限的魅力,以及Ellsworth Kelly、Barnet Newman 對於空間精準度、清晰度的影響,開始研究實驗透視法雕塑,大量使用木頭、鉛、鐵、銅、青銅、紙..等材質,以手工打造創作抽象極簡雕塑。同時執教荷蘭皇家藝術學院長達33年。

an early work from 1990, A-90, lead on wood 180 x 84 x 84 cm

an early work from 1990, copper and steel 144 x 262 x 89 cm.

3.滅點雕塑時期:自90年代起至今,深入研究 “視覺的模擬兩可性” (ambiguity of seeing),專注透視法與空間的探索,將滅點(Vanishing Point)的視覺高度統一設在1.65M,復雜的創作過程中,以手繪草稿、數學運算、手做模型,掌握透視、精密度、不同材質精準鑲接,遊刃於作品、想象、詩意空間三階段進化的創作風格。此時期材質簡化為黑鐵、鋼材、毛玻璃、木質等,以黑色透明的單色,重現幼時多霧森林的多維度框景。受猶太歷史博物館(Jewish Historisch Museum)、委托創作,與阿姆斯特丹基金會合作,為900戶每戶新住宅創作獨有數字門牌雕塑。

自古羅馬時期藝術家就對透視有一定的認識,兩條並行線在某個點聚集後消失,就是滅點。公元1011年阿拉伯科學家海什木Ibn al-Haytham的《光學全書》Perspectiva翻譯拉丁文就是 “光的科學” 透視(Perspective),文藝復興意大利畫家馬薩喬Masaccio(1401~1428)是第一位在繪畫中使用線性透視,也是第一位在藝術中使用滅點技巧,自此藝術家營造平面繪畫時,為使其具象化的透視手法,任何⻆度觀看都只有一個滅點,將觀者的視線牽引到藝術家想要帶到的位置上,從而達到視覺上的收束。20世紀荷蘭風格派運動(De Stijl)主張抽象和簡化,外形上縮減到幾何形狀,顏色只用紅、黃、藍三原色與黑、白二非色彩的原色。藝術家們共同關心的問題是簡化至本質的藝術元素,平面、直線、矩形成為藝術中的支柱,並通過數學的計算來達到視覺平衡 。奧德霍恩Oudshoorn的作品則開創多維風景,他進一步將此概念延伸在白墻、地板,創作被定義為一種載體,觀者在接近墻面的那一刻,便可以體驗一種圖像,而這樣的圖像讓空間感變得與眾不同,觀者視覺被牽引至想象滅點,進而打開大腦感官思維,進入想象世界遨翔。

雷諾・奧德霍恩 Reinoud Oudshoorn 作品削弱了現代雕塑的特質- 量體、材質、現實,他的計算成了再現與幻覺,在雕塑及非雕塑之間走出一條獨特的路,數十年精鉆精神埋首一貫理念:“我搭起一座始於實體作品、經由透視空間、通往精神世界的橋梁”。雕塑不僅呈現自身的量體,也並非只是空間減法,而是創造延伸的詩意空間,看似黑鐵的冷靜精準,實則帶東方哲學禪意,細膩虛實穿透,優雅的、夢幻的滅點, 帶給觀者許多生命美好定格的寧靜時刻。

Reinoud Oudshoorn 創作手稿,以數學的方式計算線條與視角

Selected Solo Exhibitions

2020 Fragmented Truth (with Alice Quaresma), Patrick Heide Contemporary Art, London
2019 Vanishing Point,Bluerider ART, Taipei, Taiwan
2017 Dimensions of three, Allouche Gallery, New York, US
2017 Recent Sculptures, Patrick Heide Art Company, London, UK
2015 Ramakers Gallery, The Hague, The Netherlands
2013 Recent Sculptures, Patrick Heide Art Company, London, UK
2012 Dimensions, Gallery Skape, Seoul, South Korea
2011 Wetering Gallery, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
2010 Poetic reality in space, Gallery Skape, Seoul, South Korea
2009 Wetering Gallery, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
2008 Art Amsterdam, Wetering Gallery, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
2008 Wetering Gallery, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
2005 Wetering Gallery, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
2003 Wetering Gallery, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
2000 Wetering Gallery, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
1998 Wetering Gallery, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
1996 Wetering Gallery, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
1995 Wetering Gallery, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
1994 Path Gallery, Aalst, Belgium
1993 Wetering Gallery, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
1992 Wetering Gallery, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
1991 Path Gallery, Aalst, Belgium
1990 Wetering Gallery, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
1988 Waalkens Gallery, Finsterwolde, The Netherlands
1987 Wetering Gallery, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
1985 Wetering Gallery, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
1983 Wetering Gallery, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
1981 Wetering Gallery, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
1979 Museum Fodor, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
1978 Waalkens Gallery, Finsterwolde, The Netherlands

Selected Group Exhibition

2022 The Blue Danube, Bluerider ART ,Shanghai , China
2021 Mental Space,Bluerider ART ,Taipei. , Taiwan
2020 For the Love of Art Part 1and 2, Gallery Ramakers, The Hague
2020 Gallery Ramakers at Art Rotterdam.    
2019 Uit het atelier, Gallery Ramakers, The Hague, The Netherlands
2018 3D “Schrift am Bau”, Museum für Gestaltung, Zürich, Switzerland
2018 Volta NY, Allouche Gallery, New York, USA
2017 Machinerie, Proviciehuis, Haarlem, The Netherlands
2017 Art Rotterdam, Ramakers Gallery, The Netherlands
2017 Art Geneva, Patrick Heide, Geneva, Switzerland
2016 PULSE Miami, Patrick Heide, Miami, USA
2016 Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day, Ramakers Gallery, The Hague, The
Netherlands
2016 Grand opening new space” Gallery Allouche Gallery, New York, USA
2016 Volta Basel, Patrick Heide, Basel, Switzerland
2016 Konstruction Construction, Museum Sammlung Schroth, Soest, Germany
2016 Art Geneva, Patrick Heide, Geneva, Switzerland
2016 Licht en transparantie, Thomas Elshuis en Reinoud Oudshoorn, Nieuw
Dakota, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
2016 Ramakers Gallery, The Hague, The Netherlands
2015 Patrick Heide Gallery on the Miami Pulse, Miami, USA
2015 A call for drawing, Symposium, HKU, Utrecht, The Netherlands
2015 Volta Basel, Patrick Heide Gallery, Basel, Switzerland.
2014 PULSE Miami, Patrick Heide Gallery, Miami, USA
2014 Nanjing International Art Festival, Nanjing, China.
2014 Short-hand-made, Grindel 117, Hamburg. Germany.
2014 20 years anniversary, Ramakers Gallery, The Hague, The Netherlands
2014 Volta Basel, Patrick Heide Gallery, Basel, Switzerland.
2013 PULSE Miami, Patrick Heide Gallery, Miami, USA
2013 Hidden dimension, Gallery Skape, Seoul, South Korea.
2013 The last picture show, Wetering Gallery, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
2013 Hidden dimension, Gallery Skape, Seoul, South Korea
2013 Capriccio, JCA de KOK centre for contemporary art, The Hauge, The
Netherlands
2013 Reinoud Oudshoorn and Jérôme Touron, Ramakers Gallery, The Hauge, The
Netherlands
2012 PULSE Miami, Patrick Heide Gallery, Miami, USA
2012 Gallery Skape, Gallery Seoul Art Fair, Seoul, South Korea
2011 PULSE Miami, Patrick Heide Gallery, Miami, USA
2011 Permanent Exibition, Skape Gallery, Seoul, South Korea
2010 PULSE Miami, Patrick Heide Gallery, Miami USA
2010 Space A 2010, Gallery Space, Seoul, South Korea
2008 Ten Feet De Vishal, Haarlem, The Netherlands
2007 De keuze van Lucassen Ramakers Gallery, The Hague
2006 Façade Arti et Amicitiae, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
2001 A Public Space 2001 Odyssey Arti et Amicitiae, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
1997 Nooit zag ik Awater zo nabij Oude Kerkje, Kortenhoef, The Netherlands
1997 One Line Drawing, Ubu Gallery, New York, USA
1996 The Dutch Connection Marshall Art Gallery, Memphis TN, USA
1996 Weatherview Norwich Gallery, Norwich, UK
1994 The Collection Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
1994 De keuze van Betty van Garrel Wetering Gallery, Amsterdam, The
Netherlands
1993 Atelier Mémoire, Paris, France
1993 20 Years Wetering Gallery Wetering Gallery, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
1993 Kai,Sagaert et Oudshoorn Atelier Mémoire, Paris, France
1992 Le Génie de la Bastille Paris, France
1992 Gemeente Kunstaankopen 1991 Museum Fodor, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
1990 Liberations Jewish Historical Museum, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
1989 Kunstlijn Sculpture Route Zwolle-Emmen, The Netherlands
1989 AMRO Bank Collection, A Choice Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, The
Netherlands
1988 Spiel der Uberraschungen der Europaïschen Kunst des 20 Jahrhundert,
Bochholt, Germany
1986 KunstRai, Wetering Gallery, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
1984 De Kampanje, Den Helder, The Netherlands
1981 Felison op Beeckestijn, with Marlene Dumas, Velzen Zuid, The Netherlands
1979 Van Krimpen Gallery, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
1976 11 Painters, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
1975 Markt 17, Enschede, The Netherlands
1974 Rijksmuseum Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands

Collections

Akzo Nobel Art Foundation
Collection Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam
ABN AMRO Art Collection
The Chadha Art Collection
Eleanore De Sole Collection
Joods historisch museum
University Medical Center Utrecht
Collection Sammlung Schroth, Germany

Selected Publications

2019 “Reinoud Oudshoorn” Book, monograph.
2018 Patrick Heide Contemparary Art “Ten Years”
2017 Collection “Sammlung Schroth (1981-2016)”, Stiftung Konzeptuelle Kunst.
2017 Safari Typo Amsterdam, by Bas Jacobs
2013 Den Haag Centraal, Culture, 12-04-2013 “Vernuftig spel met ruimte en kleur”
door Egbert van Faassen.
2012 Cat. Gallery Skape, Reinoud Oudshoorn,”Dimensions” by Wonseok Koh
[Curator Arko Art Center]
2012 ART in culture, Seoul, Korea “Reinoud Oudshoorn / Choi KI Seog”
by Gim Jonggil
2012 Sunday Magazine, Seoul Korea Gallery review, Reinoud Oudshoorn at
Gallery Skape.
2011 Space, Architecture and Art magazine, Nr 529. “Poetics of space” by
Yunkyong Kim
2010 Cat. Gallery Skape “Reinoud Oudshoorn, Poetic reality in space”
2009 Kunstbeeld “Reinoud Oudshoorn, Anna van Leeuwen [Wetering Galerie]”
2008 “Reinoud Oudshoorn” Book, monograph.
2008 Kunstbeeld “Wiskunde voor de verbeelding”, Hans Sizoo
2006 NRC Handelsblad “Tijdreis door het gebouw van Arti”, Machteld Leij
2003 Kunstbeeld “Reinoud Oudshoorn, Wetering Galerie”, Hans Sizoo
2003 Items “Harde cijfers”, MVE
2001 Cat. Amsterdams Fonds voor de Kunst “A Public Space 2001, Odyssey”,
Amsterdam
2000 Kunstbeeld “Reinoud Oudshoorn, Wetering Galerie”, Willem van Beek
2000 Het Nederlandse Kunstboek Richard Fernhout/ Colin Huizing, Waanders
Publishers b.v. Zwolle, NL
1998 NRC Handelsblad “Wetering Galerie” Janneke Wesseling
1997 Stichting Collage Kortenhoef “Nooit zag ik Awater zo van nabij”
1997 The New York Times, Art in Review “One-Line Drawing”, Roberta Smith
1996 Het Financieele Dagblad “Expositie zonder titel toont levende joodse cultuur”,
Marty Bax
1996 The Memphis Flyer, “Dutch Treat”, Nancy Muse, Memphis TN, USA
1996 Cat. Norwich Gallery “Weatherview”, Norwich, UK
1995 Het Parool “Moderne Kunst in joodse context”, Pietje Tegenbosch
1994 Cat. Info Mémoart “Spécial Trones des Artistes”, édité par Atelier Mémoire,
Paris
1992 Het Parool “Abstractie”, Jan Bart Klaster
1992 Cat. Quartier de la Bastille, ‘Le Genié de la Bastille’, Paris
1992 Cat. Gemeente Kunstaankopen 1991 “Amsterdam Koopt Kunst”, Museum
Fodor, Amsterdam
1990 Het Parool “Afgebakende ruimte voor herinneringen”, interview by Jan Bart
Klaster
1990 Cat. Joods Historisch Museum “Bevrijdingen”, Amsterdam
1989 Het Parool, kunstbijlage “De Prent van Reinoud Oudshoorn”
1989 Cat. Stichting Beeldenroute Overijssel “Kunstlijn”, beeldenroute
Zwolle-Emmen
1989 Cat. Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam “De AMRO Bank collectie, een keuze”
1988 Cat. Tentoonstellingsdienst Overijssel “Spel der Verrassingen, Europese Kunst
van de 20ste eeuw”
1985 Het Financieele Dagblad “Beeldtekens”, Walter Barten
1984 Cat. De Kampanje, Den Helder NL
1983 Het Parool “Lichtvoetige Kunstwerken”, Frans Duister
1981 Haarlems Dagblad “Oudshoorn en Dumas dwingen tot kijken”, Kunstredactie
1981 NRC Handelsblad, “Dumas/ Oudshoorn laten zich inspireren door vreemde
dieren”, Paul Groot
1981 Stichting Felison, “Felison op Beeckestijn”, Velzen-Zuid
1978 Nieuwsblad van het Noorden “Atmosferische verstilling in het werk van
Reinoud Oudshoorn”, Erik Beenker
1976 Het Financieele Dagblad “Tentoonstelling in het Stedelijk”, Mathilde Visser
1976 De Nieuwe Linie, “De inteelt van het Stedelijk Museum”, Jan Juffermans
1976 Cat. Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam “11 Painters”

Trailer:1.65 – Reinoud Oudshoorn 2022.10.29 – 2022.12.25
藝術對談: Bluerider ART Elsa Wang v.s. Reinoud Oudshoorn
Exhibition Tour:1.65 – Reinoud Oudshoorn
Trailer: Reinoud Oudshoorn ‘Varnish Point’ 消失點

學術評論 Art Critique


Building a Path toward Infinity
建造一條無盡之路

by Won-seok Koh

在哲學的領域裡,儘管東西方文化存在著思想差異,我們都在共同尋找著這個迭宕變幻世界所遵循的法則。當西方哲學家企圖從過去的論證理解複雜宇宙中的現象,東方的哲學家則在人們與變動元素的交互關係之間尋找答案。這或許是一個概括化的思維,但卻意外地有助於人們理解東西文化差異。直到現在,這兩種思維中仍存在著許多不同之處。

Reinound Oudshoorn 的作品結構源於他圖稿中以準確計算結果發展出的樣態。觀察他的創作過程,似乎是以西方科學方法中,先建立規矩再逐步轉化出結果的方式來完成作品。而有趣的是,其作品的特殊之處卻在於他以相反的順序展開創作。Reinound 的靈感源自於生活周遭各式各樣稀鬆平常的物件,並賦予他們視覺上的意義。「舉例來說:當我沿著海灘漫步,我會將視野所及的海岸線轉換為一個特定的曲線,或在穿梭於雲霧之間時聯想到一些有趣的雲朵形狀。」Reinound Oudshoorn説。他也提到自己會從過去的作品中獲得新型態的靈感。

以這樣的方式思索事物表面,不僅消弭了潛意識中對物件既定的想法,同時,建構超越物件表面的秩序也作為是一種冥想的過程,可以視為一種趨向於東方文化的方式。Oudshoorn 透過融合了數學計算的繪圖,去理解這些三維空間中的抽象量體。這些數學計算在他虛幻的作品形體中傳達了精確與準確的表彰,而作品中材料的選擇則強化了空間的物理面向。

引領西方文藝復興的透視法源自於對二維限制的反動,在嘗試複雜計算與理解線稿、選擇媒材到最終完成藝術作品框架的過程中,Oudshoorn 以藝術家的視角成就了二維平面中的三維空間。

作品簡練的型態與沈靜穩重的氣質,便是他這種創作過程的體現。他的作品探究了有限實體與無限非物質概念的界線。這是他在開始繪畫時所依循的中心思想,現在也作為他雕塑作品的理念。

Reinound Oudshoorn 作品以框架元素完成的空間呈現,為觀看展保留了開闊的解讀空間。儘管作品中三維空間的展現依附於原有空間的牆面與角落,他的作品仍清晰的存在於整個環境之中。

在他第二次舉辦於韓國的個人展覽中,Reinound Oudshoorn以更為直接的手法將作品的呈現與空間結合。作品被掛在牆上或是直接放置在地面。有些以鋼爲材料的大型創作,則同時固定於牆面和地板。以看似無所謂的姿態傳遞了安定性,又或是一種強大的緊張感。這些作品處在一個萬有引力與抵抗萬有引力的微妙交界點。

除此之外,作品的形狀會隨著觀者視覺的位置而變化。當我們由左至右或上到下移動時,會不斷地看到新的形狀。例如一展示在畫廊角落的一件由鋼鐵細線構成的作品,會因為我們佇立的距離與觀看視角的不同,看到其形狀從線到平面,再從二維平面到三維的立體空間,因而吸引了我們的注意力。

Reinound Oudshoon 的每一件雕塑都是一個獨立的作品。然而當他們一同在畫廊展出時,他們不再是個別獨立的個體,反之,他們會共同聯成一線,喚醒一個隱形的新空間。Oudshoorns主張:「雕塑應創造比作品本身更大的空間」,這是理解他作品背後概念的重要關鍵。從這點可以了解,他不是以研究原理與計算的結果來填充空間,而是在現有的空間創造出一個隱藏、不可見的空間與路徑。 Oudshoorns 透過觀者的水平視角與組合元素創造出新的空間,例如緩慢延展的曲線和嚴實的線條、半透明表面折射的霧面深度與觸覺紋理的木材。

Reinound Oudshoon 的作品將一個「空間」轉化為「特定的場域」,他的作品揭示了一條從有線實體到無框架非物質概念的無限空間。觀眾透過他的藝術因此獲得了對於「一種認知自己存在」空間感知的新體驗,因為它照映了我們所存在的地方,一個人所屬的強烈冥想空間。 Oudshoorn 作品中強烈的冥想面向來自於-他將物質空間擴展到心靈空間的方式,而不僅僅是展現由幾何形狀組成的抽象圖。

在我們的生活中,我們時常自己限制、抑或被他人限制我們的潛力。現代人的生活迫使我們的身體適應人類規範的框架,而當面對現實面時,我們的思維就因此被打斷。跨越這樣的壁壘,Reinound Oudshoorn 的藝術成為一條連接我們與外部世界和存在於我們自己宇宙中無限可能性的道路。在這條道路上邂逅了一個新維度的宇宙,一個既不屬於你也不屬於我的世界。

作者: Wonseok Koh高元碩

現任韓國首爾美術館總策展人。曾任釜山市立美術館總策展人、韓國文化藝術委員會美術館(Arko Art Center)、國立亞洲文化殿堂(ACC,光州)檔案部負責人、SPACE畫廊、Space Pool等多家藝術機構擔任策展人。高元碩亦為英國倫敦大學亞非學院研究員,韓國藝術大學、首爾電子大學講師與客座教授。

Building a Path toward Infinity
Won-seok Koh

It’s a general proposition in philosophy, regardless of the differences between Eastern and Western thought, to seek the ultimate order inherent to our ever-changing, phenomenal world. While Western philosophers attempted to understand the phenomena of the complex universe by analyzing it according to previously proven theories, Eastern philosophers focused on the interaction between human consciousness and the unclear elements of variability. This might be considered too generalized a perspective, but it is surprisingly effective in understanding cultural differences between the Eastern and the Western worlds. The differences in these viewpoints still exist today, in both cultural domains.

Reinound Oudshoorn builds structures by first making preparative drawings, in which he lines up outcomes from calculations. Observing this process, it seems to me that he is using a Western scientific method, one that first establishes order and rules, then generates results by following the process through. The specific character of his work comes from approaching this method in reverse order. He is first inspired by various objects that he finds around him, in ordinary place. He then gives them visual expression. He says, for example, that he might make an analogy for a certain type of curve in a coastline while walking along the beach, or think of an interesting shape of cloud as he wends his way through a fog. He also notes that he gets inspiration for new shapes from his past art works.

In contemplating given surfaces, this approach cancels out potential prejudices toward or against any subject. At the same time, establishing an order that exists beyond the surface is a process of meditation. It could therefore be considered ass very Kastern. In order to realize abstract shapes in three dimensions, generated from such a process, Oudshoorn goes through a drawing stage, in which mathematical calculations are added. These calculations serve to produce accurate representations of his intended illusory shapes. The materials are selected and. Employed with the purpose of strengthening the physical aspect of space.

The rules of perspective that guided the Renaissance in the West were derived from the artistic will to defeat the limits of two dimensions. In the process of making complicated calculations and study drawings, choosing of art, Oudshoorn’s artistic vision creates three-dimensional space in the context of limited surfaces.

As a result of this process, his works are composed of simple, yet restrained shapes, which generate a contemplative atmosphere. His art explores the gap between the finitude of physical subjects and an infinity of immaterial subjects. This is the principal theme that has penetrated his art since he began painting, and which he is presently applying to his sculpture.

Reinoud Oudhoorn’s works are open to a wide range of viewer interpretations. That is because the initial shape is finalized as a structural component of space. Despite its three-dimensional aspects, presented on a wall or filling a corner of the space around to, his sculpture clearly exists within the structure of the surrounding

In his second solo exhibition in Korea, Reinound Oudshoorn presented works that unite with space in a more distinct way. The works hung on the wall or, more often, were place on the floor. A few large pieces, made of walls and the floor. Through their seemingly careless stance, they gave rise to a certain sense of stability, as well as a feeling of heavy tension. These works are at the subtle point of contact between gravitational force and its counteraction.

In addition, the shapes of the works change according to the viewer’s position. As one moves from left right, or from above to below, new shapes keep appearing. For instance, the work made of thin lines in steel, displayed in one corner of the gallery space, absorbs attention by transforming its shape from lines to planes, then from planes to three-dimensional space, according to the distance and angles view.

Each of his pieces is an independent sculpture. When gathered together in a gallery, however, they see, instead to work as independent elements that evoke a  new space altogether, rather than just accepting the space one by one. His statement that, ‘’a sculpture must generate more space than it consumes’’, is an important key to understanding the concept underlying his work. It shows that his approach is not about filling the space with something resulting from studying certain principles, but suggests a path that connects new, invisible spaces hidden in the existing space. Encountering viewers’s horizontal viewpoints, Oudshoorns’s sculptures create new space by composing elements, such as slow-developing curves and strict lines, semi-transparent surfaces showing uncertain depth, or wood with a tactile texture.

Reinound Oudshoon’s work transforms place into specific space, His work reveals a cognitive path toward the uncertain space to infinity. Visitors gain a new experience of perceiving space to through his art. Such experience becomes an action towards recognizing one’s existence, as it mirrors the place where one belongs. The strongly meditative the place where one belongs. The strongly meditative aspects in Oudshoorn’s work come from his way of extending physical place into mental space, rather than just showing its abstract aspects, composed of geometric shapes.

In our lives we cut off our own potential, or it is done by others. Modern life obliges our bodies to fit the frame of their artificial structures. Our thinking is interrupted when it confronts this spectacular surface. Transcending such a barricade, Reinound Oudshoorn’s art is a path that connects us to the infinite possibility that exists in the outer world and the universe that resides in ourselves. The world encountered on this path is in a universe of a new dimension, one that belongs to neither you nor me.

The Magic of Mist
霧的魔力

鏡頭掠過貧瘠的山脊和沙地。地表在太陽強烈地照射下,似乎成了古老的粉紅色。眼前景色在刺眼的光線下一動也不動。廣闊山谷中的靜謐被巨大的岩層守護著,這些岩層隨著時間的推移被侵蝕成不規則的形狀,將景色切割成不同視角,一個連著一個,有的彷彿身置其中,有的則是全景,像是身處巨大沙堡中的房間。撥動吉他發出的尖銳、嗚咽憂鬱的音樂伴隨著圖像飛速地切換著,而當鏡頭對準空曠的沙漠中間的一個人物時,畫面就靜止了。

一部電影是無數靜止圖像的串連,有些圖像埋藏在我們的記憶中,有些則消失得無影 無蹤。爾後,任何一位看過電影的人都會建構一個屬於自己的電影。維姆文德斯 (Wim Wenders)所執導的經典電影「巴黎,德州」(1984),是 Reinoud Oudshoorn 最喜歡的電影之一,在開場時就創造了無數的圖像和視覺體驗。對 Reinoud Oudshoorn 來說,鏡頭的影像,從近景和遠景的交替展現了沙漠的廣闊,是 一種崇高的空間體驗。

Reinoud Oudshoorn 工作室的牆面上掛著一件於 2005 年創作,一個由水平”直角”組成 的無題作品,作品的兩個短邊被磨成了一個半圓與嵌入的磨砂玻璃。站在作品前,透 著玻璃看過去,如一個迴紋針的形狀,而藉由一個消失在透視中的暗影,體現了一個大框架裡小小的回聲。你的視覺因此被拉至深處,進入一個虛空世界中,成就一個矛 盾聯想的舞台。

汽車後視鏡的圖像若隱若現。鏡子中映出的過往印象連結了另一個記憶,一個關於車內封閉空間的實體體驗,它是周圍風景中一個獨立存在的個體,沿途一個沿著一個地穿過,掠過一道又一道空間,不論是從汽車、林地或到建築。但記憶不是完整的,隨著影像從鏡子中漸漸消失,視線再次回到大框架裡看向小橢圓形中的空洞,它仍然懸掛在透視籠罩的玻璃中、在鐵製細節中、在基本簡單的形式美中,彷彿是一種寂靜的降臨於圖像上。畫面中的三維空間被不知不覺地轉移到一個個人所屬的想像空間。圖像已經變成一個載體,一個媒介。

「在空間體驗中被引領」是 Reinoud Oudshoorn 作品中的一個主題。正如 Reinoud Oudshoorn 在他的工作室中解釋,他的雕塑成形過程中總是從:注視著一個白色的表 面、一張紙或一堵空白的牆開始。由於高強度的注視,白色的牆從二維表面變為立體 三維狀態的那一刻,它同時創造了一個具有意識的可能性。這種凝視與觀察因此產生 了新的想法,也使過往尚未成形的計劃、尚未找到解答的形式、格式和體積、材料與 技術循環上有所進步發展。新作品的輪廓是從白色的虛空中與藝術家的經驗交叉融合 後萃取的結晶。這就是無形的、非物質的東西成為物質的方式。

在研究白牆創作的力量來源與可能性的過程中,我們發現有一段來自於藝術家童年的記憶。Reinoud Oudshoorn 的童年是在 Ommen 附近的一個鄉村莊園裡度過的,在這個廣闊的地方,他可以獨自在田野和樹林中無休止地遊蕩。他最喜歡在濃霧籠罩大地的時候散步。這不僅創造了一種低沈的靜默,還有著一種虛空,以及因自己幻想出的畫面填補這虛空寂靜的興奮感。 這與在作品上,我們可以擴張空間的體驗感有關,而這種體驗會隨著畫面的擴散變得更加強烈。霧就像是一個安全的毯子,守護了這個不被打擾的幻覺。

Reinoud Oudshoorn 在 18 歲左右看到了 Barnett Newman 的作品展覽。在阿姆斯特丹 Stedelijk 博物館舉辦的回顧展令他大開眼界:像 Cathedra 這件畫作,其寬敞的空間、 強烈的藍色和旁邊的白色帶狀線條,讓人目不暇接。「就像你可以走入畫中一樣。對我來說,那是一個起點。 」

三維空間、透視、對和諧的渴望以及對經典透視法則的迷戀,這些因素對 Reinoud Oudshoorn 的創作中扮演了重要角色。離開高中後,他選擇在恩斯赫德(Enschede) 的藝術和工業學院學習。他的才華獲得了肯定,但一年半後,他感覺看夠了而搬到了伊比薩島(Ibiza,),在島中央的一個小房子裡居住數月,希望藉由日復一日沈浸於創 作中而有所啟發。為了賺取生活費,他在閒暇時間清洗私人游泳池。近一年後, Reinoud Oudshoorn 決定返回荷蘭。通過畫家盧卡森(Lucassen),他被哈勒姆的 “63 工作室”(Ateliers ’63)錄取,在那裡他遇到了安蘇亞布洛姆(Ansuya Blom)、伊萊康特(Eli Content)以及後來的埃里克安德烈斯(Erik Andriesse)、瑪琳杜馬斯
(Marlene Dumas)和利奧弗羅金德韋伊(Leo Vroegindeweij)。 Oudshoorn 在這 裡找到一種被真誠對待的歸屬感。大家對作品進行了批判性的討論,並建立了終生的友誼。 在”63 工作室”最後一次展出之後,Oudshoorn 搬到了阿姆斯特丹。而他為 63 工作室最後一個項目展出的作品獲得阿姆斯特丹 Stedelijk 博物館的邀請,Oudshoorn 因此參加他們 1976 年的展覽「11 位畫家」。

1970 年代後期,雷諾.奧德霍恩受到了 Jan Roeland、Ad Dekkers、Ben Akkerman 和 Carel Visser 以及 Elsworth Kelly 作品的啓發他越來越多地開始設計雕塑,先是伴隨著繪 畫一同創作,但他最終擱置了顏料和畫筆。”繪畫導致了太多的幻覺,”他解釋說。”我希望我的作品更有形。對我來說,我的工作是在二維和三維之間。繪畫是太多的幻覺 或欺騙,而雕塑是太多的障礙。我想在觀眾的物理元素和空間之間創造一座橋梁。一件作品產生的空間必須大於它所消耗的空間。我使用源自繪畫幻覺語言的透視,並將透視的潛力應用於我的雕塑。這樣,我試圖在平面的幻覺空間和三維雕塑的具體現實之間建立一座橋梁”。

Oudshoorn 的早期作品之一是 1990 年的一件無題作品,由阿姆斯特丹的猶太歷史博物館收藏。這件垂直作品由鉛覆蓋的木頭製成,由四個獨立的形式構成,放置於彼此間隔且接近的距離,外觀是一個正方形,而裡面是一個圓形的輪廓。四個角揚升至四個高點,比人還高。這種垂直方向給人感覺到:這四點所包含空間的內部實際上也永遠在延續,在空中蔓延。這件作品與 Oudshoorn 早期的繪畫作品和 Barnett Newman 和 其他美國畫家,包括埃爾斯沃斯凱利(Elsworth Kelly)和馬克羅斯科(Mark Rothko) 作品的空間體驗有直接連結。觀眾可以看到這件雕塑輪廓是對巴內特紐曼(Barnett Newman)畫中之畫帶的直接演繹。更具意義的是將圖像或雕塑作為一個字面意義上的載體。

近期的作品探討關於滅點。因為雕塑的實體體驗對 Oudshoorn 來說非常重要,他想方設法讓他的觀眾感覺到他們被融入在整體的空間中,被融入在可見世界背後的世界 中。滅點在 Oudshoorn 的作品中總是設定在 1.65 米的高度,這與他年輕時經歷的迷霧相同,激起那種神奇的、永無止境的無窮感覺。在他的工作室或其他地方展示他的作品時,很明顯地,奧德霍恩以許多不同的方式定位消失點。他總是展示不同形式的作品,例如,與地面接觸的雕塑與懸掛的雕塑在一起,最近 2007 年的一件無名作品就是 如此,包括一條靠在牆上的鐵質曲線,被塗成深色的鋼灰色。曲線的角度變化,隨著 曲線寬闊、平展的兩端接近觀眾而按比例增加,這是由於雕塑實際上有兩個消失點的 結果。一個是把眼睛向下拉,拉到深處,另一個是消失在牆上,在眼睛的高度,在曲線的最高點之上。

「如果你站在雕塑前面,你會知道這一切真的發生在視平線。 你的感覺就像你站在海灘上,當你看向遠方時,你仍然可以看到海浪在你的眼角移動。這給人一種迷失方向的感覺」。此外,每件雕塑都需要觀眾的移動。從側面看這些雕塑,不僅可以清楚地看到它們的構造,還會產生線條與體積和形式的對比。

Reinoud Oudshoorn 的工作方法是非常精確的。當他坐在工作室時,牆壁或一張白紙就成了他的起點。然後,他畫一些小草圖,在這些草圖中,他試驗了雕塑的基本形式圓形和橢圓。他喜歡在粉紅色的方形紙上畫畫,因為隨著時間的推移,粉紅色會褪去,變成漂亮的各種色調,所以每幅畫都會有自己的顏色。當草圖產生了要進一步發展,成為雕塑的形式時,Oudshoorn 就開始按照最終雕塑的尺寸畫全圖。這些是令人 著迷的白紙,在這些白紙上,連同雕塑的草圖,他寫了無數的,似乎形成了痴迷的數列:幾何學與橢圓的計算。

“人們經常問我對數學是否有著執著迷戀與狂熱,但對我來說,數學只是一種工具。如同美學是一種工具一樣、就像努力追求技術上的完美是我工作中的一個必要因素一樣。但它本身不是一個目標,因為「匠人精神」這個意義上並不引起我的興趣。我開始在我的圖紙上寫下這些公式,因為如果我不這樣做,我會忘記它們。我在藝術作品 中最想要的是強度和完整性。專注對我來說不是一門學科。它是從迷戀與狂熱中生長 出來的。如此一來,我也藉此領悟了我與世界的關係了。”

根據安伯托·艾柯在《美的歷史》中的說法:在古希臘,哲學家蘇格拉底開始討論「萬 物的開端是什麼」的問題之時,是要找到「世界作為一個有序的整體,遵循單一規律的定義」。希臘人將世界視為形式,而形式等同於美。畢達哥拉斯後來在宇宙學、數學、自然史和美學之間建立了不可分割的關係。他是第一個說萬物之始是數字的人。 對 Oudshoorn 來說,伴隨他繪畫的計算只是一個過程,然而這些有序的系列喚起了畢達哥拉斯人學派對無限和對記憶中無法追蹤之物邊界的神聖敬畏。

“我對所有涉及使用透視的問題都甚感興趣。如果你看一下透視的發展,你會發現居中透視是一個尷尬的現象。只要設想到在海灘上,發現看到的地平線不是一條直線,而為了確定那個空間,我們所學的是中心觀點。我對這種經驗嫻熟於心。例如,在地板上的雕塑與曲線(上面提到)。當你站在一個大圓的邊緣,你無法完全看到它,因為它的邊緣在你的視線之外,所以你會經驗到一個拋物線。我對這些形式有一種巨大的 迷戀。我並不試圖做出有吸引力的繪畫或雕塑,我試圖以某種方式掌握一些東西,為了做到這一點,我需要這種精確性。一旦雕塑的形式決定後,材料的選擇也隨之而來。每一種形式的建構,就像是支持每個形式的建築一般,都有著支持它自己的元素材料。如鐵可以參考石墨鉛筆。木材也是令人感興趣的,因為它的紋理和材料的溫暖 特性,讓人有想觸摸的感覺。而我在選擇時就會考慮到了所有這些因素。”

鑒於他對空間性和透視度的偏好,在他的玻璃、鐵的雕塑中尤其明顯。Reinoud Oudshoorn 延續了一個荷蘭悠久的藝術傳統-繪畫之源。玻璃經常被認為是形而上和沈思的象徵,一方面是因為玻璃的清晰度,另一方面是因為它的神秘性。這個因素在Reinoud Oudshoorn 雕塑的空間質量中完美地產生了。在這些雕塑中,不同種類的啞光玻璃,內含於鐵中,共同構成了一個建築。正如 Jan Hoet 曾經說過的,”與玻璃有關的透視性正與蒙德里安畫派吻合。蒙德里安繪畫中的白色像玻璃,幾乎像水一樣。它有一種風景的質感”。Reinoud Oudshoorn 的作品也屬於這種傳統,即追求結構的清晰和連貫性。對透視的偏愛來自於深度的思慮感知,也是為了避免既定的邊界和框架。

這一點在 Oudshoorn 一件 2008 年作品(無題)中表現得很清楚。”我在玩雲的概念, 不斷變化膨脹的一個形式。我想製作玻璃泡沫,會涵蓋空間本身而位移,但也創造新的空間。這個牆面雕塑讓人聯想到一個光學儀器,比如眼科醫生會使用的開闔複雜鏡片。它是由三個不同格式的圓圈組成的,在一個較大的圓圈中包含另一個內圈,在它後面的又是相同形式的回聲,現在是一個較小的、漸進的視角。這些由鐵製成的圓圈,上面焊接著玻璃,而不同圓圈之間的關係始終是相同的。”Oudshoorn 想要以運動和多重性解釋三個圓圈。因為「三」是多個物體的最低數字,圓圈為我們提供了一層 地薄霧,而鐵的顏色和質地使圓圈上的孔看起來像石墨,使雕塑有一種無休止的作圖感。這種結構使較小的形式以恰到好處的方式漂浮在其他表面的背後,強調了陰影部分。三個圓圈外線的厚度是以這種:非平面、強調透視輪廓與保留了鐵的質感而選擇的。 這也是一件玩弄幻覺和三維空間的雕塑。我成為了一個雕塑家,”Reinoud Oudshoorn 喃喃自語,”但也許我仍然是那個尋找魔法的畫家。

Pietje Tegenbosch 皮耶傑·泰根博斯

皮耶傑·泰根博斯(Pietje Tegenbosch)為藝術史學家與藝評家,荷蘭人民報《de Volkskrant》 和 《Het Parool》日報的自由撰稿人。亦為荷蘭銀行藝術基金會顧問與 董事會成員。2009 年,Tegenbosch 與合作夥伴 Martin van Vreden 於阿姆斯特丹成 立 Tegenboschvanvreden 畫廊,經營國際當代藝術項目與表演講座。

The Magic of Mist
The Work of Reinoud Oudshoorn

The camera glides over bare mountain ridges and sandy plains. Punished by the sun, the earth seems an ancient pink. The landscape lies motionless in the blistering light. The stillness in the vast valleys is guarded by giant rock formations eroded over time into irregular shapes that divide the landscape into different compartments, one after the other, complete with passageways and panoramic views, like rooms in a sand castle of superhuman dimensions. The shrill, whining blues sounds of a slide guitar accompany the birdlike flight of the images, which come to a stop as the lens focuses on a figure in the middle of the empty expanse of the desert.

A film is a succession of countless still images. Some of these images nestle themselves into our memory. Others disappear into obscurity. After the fact, anyone who has watched a film constructs a film of his own. The opening scene of what has since become a classic, Paris Texas (1984) by Wim Wenders, one of Reinoud Oudshoorn’s favourite films, is characteristic in generating numerous images and experiences. For Oudshoorn, the camera’s images, which alternate from showing the immensity of the desert from up close and then from far away, is a sublime experience of spaciousness.

Hanging on the wall in Reinoud Oudshoorn’s studio is an untitled work from 2005, made up of a horizontal ‘right angle’ whose two short sides are rounded off into a semicircle into which matte glass has been worked. Standing in front of the work, you look through the glass, shaped like a paperclip, by way of a dark shadow that disappears into perspective, into a smaller echo of the larger form. Your eye is pulled into the depth, into an emptiness that proves a stage for contradictory associations.

The image of the rear view mirror of a car looms up. The reflection of passing impressions in mirrors like this are linked to a different memory, that of the physical experience of the enclosed character of the car itself, a selfcontained volume within the landscape around it, a capsule that skims along other capsules, shaves past other spaces, whether they are automobiles, woodlands or buildings. But the memory is incomplete, and as the image vanishes from the mirror and the eye once again looks
from the large form back to the emptiness in the small oval form, it remains hanging in the shrouded transparency of the glass, in the living details of the iron, in the beauty of the basic simplicity of form, as a silence descends across the image. The threedimensionality in the image is imperceptibly transported into a space for one’s own imagining. The image has become a vehicle, an intermediary.

Being carried along in the experience of space is a leitmotif in the work of Reinoud Oudshoorn. The process in which his sculptures take shape, as Oudshoorn explains in his studio, invariably begins with staring at a white surface, a piece of paper or an empty white wall. Because of the intensity of looking at it, at the moment this white surface of the wall alters from a surface into a state, it creates a consciousness of enormous potential. That staring and looking results in tapping into new ideas, as well as further development in older sculptures, on plans not yet developed and the recycling of forms, formats and volumes, materials and techniques not yet completely worked through. The contours of a new work are extracted from the crossfertilization of the white emptiness and the experiences of the artist. This is how the intangible, the immaterial, becomes material.

In the discovery of the power and the possibilities of a white surface lies a memory from the artist’s childhood Reinoud Oudshoornspent his childhood on a country estate near Ommen, an expansive area where he could wander alone, endlessly, through the fields and woods. He enjoyed walking most when a thick mist lay over the land. It not only created a muffled silence, but it also meant a kind of emptiness and the excitement of filling that emptiness with his own fantasies, thoughts and images. ‘It has to do with the fact that we can experience space as something larger and that this experience becomes more intense as an image becomes more diffuse. The illusion is not disturbed. Mist is a safe blanket.’

When he was about 18, Oudshoorn saw an exhibition of work by Barnett Newman. The retrospective at the Amsterdam Stedelijk Museum was an eyeopener. ‘The spaciousness in a painting like Cathedra, its intense blue and that white band next to it, was overwhelming. You could walk into the painting, as it were. For me, that was a starting point.’

Threedimensional space, transparency, a desire for harmony and a fascination for the classic rules of perspective are ingredients that would later play a major role in the work of Reinoud Oudshoorn. On leaving high school, he chose to study at the Academy for Art and Industry in Enschede. His talent was recognized, but after a year and a half, he had seen enough and moved to Ibiza, where he lived for some months in a small house in the middle of the island, hoping to discover what it meant to be occupied with art day in, day out. To earn his keep, he cleaned private swimming pools in his spare time. After nearly a year, Oudshoorn decided to return to the Netherlands. Through the painter Lucassen, he was accepted at Ateliers ’63 in Haarlem, where he met Ansuya Blom, Eli Content and later, Erik Andriesse, Marlene Dumas and Leo Vroegindeweij. Oudshoorn had the feeling here that he had found a place where he was taken seriously. There were critical discussions about the work and lifelong friendships were forged. After his final presentation at Ateliers ’63, Oudshoorn moved to Amsterdam. The work he exhibited for his final project resulted in the Amsterdam Stedelijk Museum inviting Oudshoorn to take part in their 1976 exhibition, 11 Painters.

In the late 1970s – a period when Reinoud Oudshoorn was inspired by the work of Jan Roeland, Ad Dekkers, Ben Akkerman and Carel Visser, as well as Elsworth Kelly – he increasingly began making sculptures, first alongside his painting, but he eventually set aside paint and brush. ‘Painting became too much illusion,’ he explains. ‘I wanted my work to be more physical. For me, my work is between the twodimensional and the threedimensional. Painting is too much illusion or deception, and a sculpture is too much of an obstacle. I wanted to create a bridge between the physical element of the viewer and the space. A work must produce more space than it consumes. I use perspective, derived from the illusionary language of painting, and apply the potential of perspective to my sculptures. That way, I try to create a bridge between the spatial illusion of the flat surface and the concrete reality of the threedimensional sculpture.’

One of Oudshoorn’s earlier works is an untitled piece from 1990, purchased by the Jewish Historical Museum in Amsterdam. The vertical work, made of wood covered with lead, is constructed from four independent forms that are placed with as little space as possible separating them, forming the contours of a square on the outside and a circle on the inside. The four corners rise to four tall points, higher than a man. This vertical orientation gives the feeling that the interior of the space contained by the four points actually also continues forever, up in the air. This work has a direct connection to the early paintings and the spatial experience that Oudshoorn had with the work of Barnett Newman and other American painters, including Elsworth Kelly and Mark Rothko. One can see the contours of that sculpture as a direct translation of the painted band in Barnett Newman’s painting. What matters is the idea of the image or sculpture as a container, the literal containment of space.

More recent works investigate the vanishing point. Because the physical experience of a sculpture is so important to Oudshoorn, he seeks ways to give his viewers the feeling that they are included in the totality of the space, in the world that lies behind the visible world. The vanishing point – always at a height of 1.65 metres in Oudshoorn’s case – is identical to the mist that he experienced as a youngster, activating that magical feeling of neverending infinity. In presentations of his work, in his studio or elsewhere, it is clear that Oudshoorn locates vanishing points in many different ways. He always shows works of varying formats, or for example, a sculpture in contact with the floor is alongside a hanging sculpture, as is the case with a recent untitled work from 2007, comprising an iron curve leaning against the wall and painted a dark, steel grey. The changing angle of the curve, which increases proportionately as the wide, spreading ends of the curve come closer to the viewer, are the result of the fact that the sculpture actually has two vanishing points. One pulls the eye downwards, into the depths, and the other disappears on the wall at eye level, above the highest point of the curve.

‘If you stand in front of the sculpture, you know that it all really happens at eye level. You feel just like when you are standing on a beach and as you look into the distance, you can still see the waves moving in the corner of your eye. That gives a sense of disorientation.’ Each sculpture moreover demands movement from the viewer. Viewing the sculptures from the sides not only makes it clear how they are constructed, but it generates a play of lines against volumes and forms.

Reinoud Oudshoorn’s working method is extremely precise. As he sits in his studio, the wall or a sheet of blank paper serves as a starting point. He then makes small sketches, drawings in which he experiments with the basic forms for a sculpture – circles and ellipses. He prefers to draw on pink, squared paper, because in the course of time, the pink fades and changes into beautifully varied tints, so that each drawing takes on colours of its own. When the sketches produce forms to be further developed into a sculpture, Oudshoorn starts on a fullscale drawing in the dimensions of the final sculpture. These are fascinating sheets of white paper on which, along with the sketch for the sculpture, he has written countless, seemingly obsessive series’ of numbers: descriptive geometry with calculations for ellipses.

‘People often ask me if I have a fascination for mathematics, but for me, the math is just a tool, the same way aesthetics is a tool and the same way that striving for technical perfection is a necessary ingredient in my work. But it is not an objective in itself. Craftsmanship does not interest me in that sense. I started writing down those formulas on my drawings because I would forget them if I didn’t. What I most want in a work of art is intensity and integrity. Concentration is not a discipline for me. It grows out of fascination. That way, I know how I relate to the world.’

In ancient Greece, when the preSocratic philosophers began discussing the problem of what the beginning was of all things, according to Umberto Eco in The History of Beauty, it was finding a definition of the world as an ordered whole, following a single law. The Greeks experienced the world as Form, and that Form was equal to Beauty. Pythagoras later made an inextricable link between cosmology, mathematics, natural history and aesthetics. He was the first to say that the beginning of all things was the number. For Oudshoorn, the calculations accompanying his drawings are just a device, yet these ordered series’ evoke the sacred awe the Pythagoreans had for infinity and for the frontiers of what cannot be traced in memory.

‘I have developed an interest in all the problems involving the use of perspective. If you look at the development of perspective, you see that centred perspective is an awkward phenomenon. Just consider being at the beach and the discovery of seeing that horizon was not a straight line. What we learn in order to determine that space is central prospective. I play with that experience, for example, in the floor sculpture with the curve (mentioned above). As you stand at the edge of a large circle, which you cannot completely see because its edges are beyond your vision, you experience a parabola. I have an enormous fascination for those forms. I do not try to make attractive drawings or sculptures. I try to somehow get a grip on something, and in order to do it, I need that precision. Once the form for a sculpture has been determined, the choice of material follows. Each form, like the construction that has to support the form, demands its own material. Iron can refer back to a graphite pencil. Wood is interesting because of the lines of the grain and the warm character of the material, asking to be touched. I take all of these factors into account in the choices I make.’

Given his proclivity for spatiality and transparency – best expressed in his sculptures in glass and iron –Reinoud Oudshoorn continues a long, Dutch tradition of art – primarily painters. Glass is often perceived as a symbol for the metaphysical, the contemplative, on the one hand because of the clarity of glass and on the other because of its mysteriousness, a factor perfectly generated in the spatial quality of Oudshoorn’s sculptures, in which different kinds of matt glass, contained in iron, together form a construction. As Jan Hoet once said, ‘Transparency in relation to glass fits Mondriaan. The white in Mondriaan’s paintings is like glass, almost like water. It has a landscape quality.’ The tradition to which the work of Reinoud Oudshoorn also belongs is the tradition of seeking structural clarity and coherence. The preference for transparency comes from the need to bring depth to perception and also to avoid established boundaries and frameworks.

This much is made clear in one of Oudshoorn’s most recent (untitled) works, from 2008. ‘I was playing with the idea of clouds, the swelling of formations that are constantly changing. I wanted to make glass bubbles, forms that seem to move and themselves contain space, but that also create new space.’ This wall sculpture is reminiscent of an optical instrument, such as an ophthalmologist would use, with complicated lenses and open and closed parts. It is made up of three circles of different formats, captured within a larger circle, and behind it an echo of the same forms, now in a smaller, progressive perspective. The circles are made of iron, with glass soldered into it. The relationship between the different circles is always the same. Oudshoorn wanted movement and multiplicity, which explains the three circles, for three is the lowest number for multiple objects. The circles offer a mist we look through, and the colour and texture of the iron in which the holes for the circles have been cut looks like graphite, giving the sculpture the feel of an endlessly worked drawing. The structure causes the smaller forms to float in just the right way, behind the other surfaces, partly reinforced by shadows. The thickness of the outside line of the three circles is chosen insuch a way that the material feel of the iron is retained, without it becoming a flat surface, but rather a contour that accentuates the transparency. This too is a sculpture that plays with illusion and threedimensionality. ‘I became a sculptor,’ muses Reinoud Oudshoorn, ‘but maybe I am still that painter in search of magic.’

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